Third Party Mediation in the Cote D’Ivoire Conflict, 2002-2012

  • JOSEPH C. EBEGBULEM University of Calabar Nigeria
Keywords: Mediation, Conflict, Ethnicity, Regionalism, Security

Abstract

Cote D’Ivoire which was considered as one of the richest and the most stable and peaceful countries in the West African sub-region immediately after independence under the leadership of Felix Houphouet-Boigny, witnessed major leadership crises in the early part of the 21st century. As the economy of the country began to decline after the death of its founding leader, Houphouet Boigny, it started to witness periods of protracted power struggle. The country which enjoyed relative peace after independence under its founding president, started slipping into conflicts under successive leaders in the 21st century. The Cote D’Ivoire conflict which started in 2002 and ended in 2012 attracted the attention of global, regional and sub-regional organisations who volunteered to mediate in the conflict and negotiate peace between the conflicting parties to bring the hostilities to an end. The third party mediation which included the United Nations (UN), the African Union (AU), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and France at one time or the other, got involved in mediation efforts aimed at bringing an end to the Ivorian conflict. This paper examines the background of the Cote D’Ivoire conflict and discusses the factors that were responsible for the conflict. The paper also reviews and evaluates third party mediation in the conflict, and concludes that external interests exacerbated the conflict, and that affected the peace process.

 

References

Akindes, F. (2003). “Cote d’Ivoire: Socio-political Crises, ‘Ivoirite’ and the Course of History”, African Sociological Review, vol. 7, No. 2.
Almas, G. (2007). “The Political Implications of Economic Adjustment: Crisis, Reform and Political Breakdown in Cote d’Ivoire”, in C. Obi (ed.). Perspective on Cote d’Ivore: Between Political Breakdown and Post-Conflict Peace. Discussion paper 39, Nordiska Africa institute, Uppsala.
Bakary, T. (1997). “Political Polarization over Governance in Cote d’Ivoire” in I. W. Zartman (ed.) Governance as Conflict Management: Politics and Violence in West Africa. The Brookings Institute.
Banegas, R. (2006). “Cote d’Ivoire: Patriotism, Ethno-nationalism and other African Modes of Self-Writing”, African Affairs, Vol. 105, No. 421.
Banegas, R. and Marshall-Fratani, R. (2007). “Cote d’Ivoire: Negotiating Identity and Citizenship”, in M. Boas and K. Dunn (eds.) African Guerillas, Raging against the Machine. London: Lynne Rienner.
Chirot, D. (2006). “The Debacle in Cote d’Ivoire”, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 17, No. 2.
Crook, R. (1990). “Politics, the Cocoa Crisis and Administration in Cote d’Ivoire” The Journl of Modern African Studies, Vol. 28, No. 4.
Daddieh, C.K. (2001). “Election and Ethnic Violence in Cote d’Ivoire: The Unfinished Business of Succession and Democratic Transition” African Issues. Vol. 29 N0. 1&2
Djobo, E. B. (2009). “The Experience of Cote d’Ivoire in Handling Migration”, Paper Presented at the Symposium on Global Migration, Pretoria, February 19, 2009
Dozon, J. (2001). “Post-Prophetism and Post-Houphouetism in Ivory Coast”, Social Science Compass, Vol. 48, No. 3, Pp.369-385
International Crisis Groups, (2003). “Cote d’Ivoire: The War is not yet over”. Africa Report, No. 62
International Crisis Group, (2007). “Conflict History: Cote d’Ivoire”. www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cmf?action=conflictsearch&1=1&t=eCountry=32 (Accessed April 22, 2014)
Kirwin, M. (2006). The Security Dilemma and Conflict in Cote d’Ivoire. Nordic Journal of Africa Studies, Vol. 1, Pp.42-45
Kohler, J. (2003). “From Miraculous to Disastrous: The Crisis in Cote d’Ivoire, Centre for Applied Studies in International Negotiations” (CASIN) Geneva. http://www.casin.ch/web/pdf/cotedivoire.pdf Accessed April 22, 2014)
Konate, A. S. (2004). “The Politics of Identity and Violence in Cote d’Ivoire” West Africa Review, Vol.3, No.5, P.34
Langer, A. (2004). “Horizontal Inequalities and Violent Group Mobilization in Cote d’Ivoire”, Oxford Development Studies, Vol. 33, No. 1, Pp.25-45
Lynne, R. (2004). Governance as Conflict Management. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institute Press
McGovern, M. (2011). Making War in Cote d’Ivoire. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Moorhead, M. (2002). “Why Did US and French Troops Invade Ivory Coast?” Workers World. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/27c/ 385.html (Accessed August 20, 2014)
Nabakwe, R. (2007). “French-Africa Policy Partly to Blame for Ivorian Crisis,” Pan African News Agency. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/27c/382.html (Accessed August 20, 2014).
Okereke, G. (2012). “Crime and Punishment in Cote d’Ivoire”. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, Vol. 36, No.1, Pp. 61-72
Riehl, V. (2007). “New War-Old Peace: About the Descent into Civil War in Cote d’Ivoire and its Absence in Ghana”. In C. Obi (ed.) Perspective on Cote d’Ivoire: Between Political Breakdown and Post-Conflict peace, Discussion paper 39, Nordiska African Institutet, Uppsala.
Yere, H. M. (2007). “Reconfiguring Nationhood in Cote d’Ivoire?” in C. Obi (ed.) Perspectives on Cote d’Ivoire: Between Political Breakdown and Post-Conflict Peace, Discussion Paper 39, Nordiska African Instituted, Uppsala.
Published
2020-07-19
How to Cite
JOSEPH C. EBEGBULEM. (2020). Third Party Mediation in the Cote D’Ivoire Conflict, 2002-2012. International Journal of Research in Social Science and Humanities (IJRSS) ISSN:2582-6220, 1(3), 8-17. https://doi.org/10.47505/IJRSS.2020.9110
Section
Articles