Influence of Selected Socio-Economic Factors on Crop Productivity under Irrigated Agriculture among Kimira-Oluch Smallholder Farmers of Homa Bay County, Kenya


  • Samson M. Makone Kisii University, Kenya
  • David K. Bunyatta Kisii University, Kenya
  • Samson N. Maobe Kisii University, Kenya
  • Evans A. Basweti Kisii University, Kenya



Socio-Economic, Crop Productivity, Irrigated Agriculture, Irrigation Technologies, Smallholder Farmers, Kimira-Oluch


Irrigation technology plays a critical role in enhancing agricultural productivity globally. For the last ten years, the availability of water for irrigation has been rapidly declining yet the demand for water for irrigation has been on arise. The introduction of irrigation technologies as immediate interventions for crop productivity has proved to be effective in many countries and most likely has changed the phenomenon to a more reliable and sustainable agricultural production. Despite many efforts by the Kenyan government to improve the country’s agricultural sector, still there is low crop productivity due to the continued practice of rainfed agriculture. The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of selected socio-economic factors that is the attitude towards the introduction of irrigation intervention, Irrigation technologies, Gender participation, Age of the participant, Household income, and Level of education on crop productivity among Kimira-Oluch smallholder farmers in Homa Bay County, Kenya. A survey methodology with an Ex-post facto research design was used with a sampling frame consisting of 340 smallholders. Data were collected through interview schedules administered to participants in irrigated agriculture and Non-participants (rainfed agriculture). Inferential statistics used involves multiple regression analysis and two-way ANOVA. The hypothesis was tested at a 5% level of significance and the results revealed an absolute value of correlation coefficient of 0.823 which indicates that there is a high correlation between the crop productivity and selected socio-economic factors that is (ATT, IRT, GP, HI, AR and ELR). The findings further revealed that R2= 0.714 of the proportionate variation of the model an indication that, the selected socio-economic factors can predict 71.4% of crop productivity and the other variables not included in the model can only predict 29.6% of productivity. By using analysis of variance (ANOVA) the findings revealed that the regression model predicts that there is a significant improvement in crop productivity and the farming system as well. This was revealed by the F-ratio of 71.83 indicating a significant relationship at a p-value of= 0 .000. The model will be of greater use in determining the influence of socio-economic factors on crop productivity in other regions without necessary undergoing the full research processes thus reducing the research expenses by almost half.


Adetola I. Adeoti (2009) Factors Influencing Irrigation Technology Adoption and its Impact on Household Poverty in Ghana.

Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. Volume 109, No. 1 pages 51–63

Ahmed, E., and Sulaiman, J., and Saidatulakm, M. (2012).Factors influencing Farmers’ Treatments to Use Irrigation Water.

Resources and Environment, 2(2), 73–81. doi:10.5923/

Amao, J. O. &Awoyemi, T. T. (2008) Adoption of improved cassava varieties and its welfareeffect on producing households in

Osogbo ADP zone of Osun state.Retrieved on 25 June 2012 from

Ariga, J., Jayne, T.S., Kibaara, B., &Nyoro, J.K. (2009).Trends and patterns in fertilizer useby smallholder farmers in Kenya,

-2007. Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, Egerton University

Briggeman, B.C. (2011). The importance of off-farm income to servicing farm debt.FederalReserve Bank of Kansas City.

Retrieved on 20 June 2012 from

Burrow, C. (1987). Water Resources and Agricultural Development In The Topics: New York,John Wiley And Sons.

Calatrava-Leyva, J., Franco, J. A., and Gonzalez-Roa, M. C. (2005).Adoption of soil conservation practices in olive groves: The

case of Spanish mountainous areas. Presented at the XI International Congress of the European Association of Agricultural Economists, Denmark

Chebil, A., Frija, A., and Abdelkafi, B. (2012). Irrigation water use efficiency in collective irrigated schemes of Tunisia:

Determinants and potential irrigation cost reduction. Agricultural Economics Review, 13(1).

Chikwendu, D.O (1996). Adoption of improved technologies for millet productionby farmers in Borno State of Nigeria.

Samaru Journal of Agricultural Research, 13, 73-81.

Chitere, P.A. (1985). Agro frestry Plots for Rural Kenya Project.Socio-Economic Survey Report. Mazingira

Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

DanielZiba (2015), The Impact of Irrigation Schemes on Farmers’ Income and Livelihoods in the Upper East Region Of Ghana

Unpublished Msc. Thesis Kwame Nkrumah University of Science And Technology.

Ellis-O’Quinn, A. (2012). An Ex Post Facto Study of First-Year Student Orientation as an Indicator of Student Success at a

Community College.Inquiry, 17(1), 51–57.

FAO. (2000). Socio-economic impact of smallholder irrigation development in Zimbabwe: case studies of ten irrigation schemes.

FAO Sub-Regional Office for East and Southern Africa (SAFR), Harare, SAFR/AGLW/DOC/002.

FAO (2016).The Gender and Equity Implications of Land-Related Investments by Producer Organizations in Malawi. Rome,

Italy. Accessed November 2020

IFAD (2012b).Gender and water. “Securing water for improved rural livelihoods: The multiple-

uses system approach.” IFAD, Rome.

Jansen, A., and Schulz, C. (2006).Water Demand and The Urban Poor: A Study of the Factors influencing Water Consumption

among Households in Cape Town, South Africa (Working paper No. 02/06). Norway.

Janvry, A., Sadoulet, E., & Zhu, N. (2005).The role of non-farm incomes in reducing ruralpoverty and inequality in China.

Retrieved on November

Karina F. Z. and Alex WambuaMwaniki (2011). Irrigation Agriculture in Kenya – Impact of the Economic Stimulus Programme

and Long-term Prospects for Food Security in an Era of Climate Change, Heinrich BöllStiftung, East and Horn of Africa (1- 62)

KulshreshathaS.N & Brown W.J (1993). Role of the farmers’ attitude in adoption of irrigation in Saskatchewan. Journal of

Irrigation and Drainage Systems (7) 85-98,

Kundlander, G., Groenewald, D., Baiphethi, M., &Viljoen, M. (1994). Environmental Systems (Certificate Course) Bulawayo

,Tyrocrafters Press.

Mendola, M. (2005). Agricultural technology and poverty reduction: A micro-level analysis of causal effects. Working Paper No

Milan, Italy: University of Milan and Centro Studi L. d’Agliano.

Michael MusyokiMuthui (2015). Socio-Economic and Adminstrative Factors InfluencingAdoption of Irrigation

Technology in TharakaNithi County. Unpublished Msc Thesis, University of Nairobi Press

Mugenda, Olive M. &Mugenda, Abel G. (2003).Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, Acts Press,


Owilla, B. P. (2010). Analysis of economic efficiency of irrigation water-use in Mwea irrigation scheme, Kirinyaga District,

Kenya (Master’s Thesis).Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya Ramirez et al., 2008).

Rockaway, D. T., Coomes, P. A., Rivard, J., and Kornstein, B. (2011). Residential water use trends in North America. Journal of

AWWA, 103(2).

Upadhyay, B (2004) Gender aspects of smallholder irrigation technology: Insights from Nepal. Journal of Applied Irrigation

Science, Vol. 39. No 2/2004, pp. 315-327

Waithaka, M.M., Thornton, P.K., Shepherd, K.D. and Ndiwa, N.N. (2007). Factors affectingthe use of fertilizers and manure by

smallholders: the case of Vihiga, western Kenya. NutrCyclAgroecosyst 78:211–224


How to Cite

Samson M. Makone, David K. Bunyatta, Samson N. Maobe, & Evans A. Basweti. (2020). Influence of Selected Socio-Economic Factors on Crop Productivity under Irrigated Agriculture among Kimira-Oluch Smallholder Farmers of Homa Bay County, Kenya. International Journal of Research in Social Science and Humanities (IJRSS) ISSN:2582-6220, DOI: 10.47505/IJRSS, 1(5), 10–26.